Substance Abuse

 

Substance Abuse:

DANTES Final Exam Outline 

Each topic will be covered in class. 

 

Overview of Substance Abuse and Dependency Abuse (10% - 12%)

 

  • Terminology: A pattern of maladaptive substance use that is associated with recurrent and significant adverse consequences.

  • Theories of abuse and dependence: Substance abuse has been categorized within the psychoanalytic concept of symptoms.

  • Models of abuse and dependence: Physical dependence, positive reinforcement, disease model, etc.

  • Demographics: In 2010, an estimated 22.6 million Americans aged 12 or older were current illicit drug users.

  • Costs to society and associations with social problems: The economic cost alone is immense, estimated at nearly $215 billion.

  • Screening and diagnosis: When there are no obvious red flags, suspicious physical findings, or atypical features of chronic disease is when it is most important to do so.

 

Classification of Drugs (5% - 7%)

 

With the Controlled Substances Act of 1970, a major illegal substance control campaign began.

 

Pharmacological and Neurophysiological Principles (10% - 12%)

 

  • Nervous system: Most drugs affect nervous systems by modulating synaptic transmission.

  • Actions of drugs: Addictive drugs commonly increase dopamine in the mesolimbic area of the brain.

  • Drug interactions: How your body responds to drugs and their specific effects.

 

Alcohol (11% - 13%)

 

  • History and types: The production and use of alcoholic beverages date to the earliest periods of human civilization.

  • Determinants of blood alcohol level: Blood alcohol content is usually expressed as a percentage of alcohol in the blood.

  • Effects: Vary depending on the BAC % level.

  • Uses and administration: Usually administered orally in its original state or mixed with other bases (such as fruit juice).

  • Tolerance, withdrawal, and overdose: Alcohol consumption interferes with many bodily functions and affects behavior.

  • Dependency issues: Gets worse over time, and gradually the effects become more serious.

  • Prevention and treatment: Reduce or avoid alcohol.

 

Anti-anxiety and Sedative Hypnotics (5% - 7%)

 

  • History and types: Created to ameliorate the effects of stress and ease feelings of discomfort, tension, anxiety, and dysphoria.

  • Effects, uses and administration, tolerance, prevention and treatment, and dependency issues.

 

Inhaled Substances (3% - 5%)

 

  • History and types: The true history of inhalants dates back to 1400 B.C. with the Greeks using special vapors to enter into a trance. Types include volatile substances, aerosols, gases, nitrites.

  • Effects, uses and administration, tolerance, prevention and treatment, and dependency issues.

 

Tobacco and Nicotine (6% - 8%)

 

  • History and types: Tobacco is a product obtained from the leaves of plants belonging to the genus Nictotiana. When dried and cured, tobacco leaves are used to make a variety of products including cigarettes, cigars, snuff, chewing tobacco.

  • Effects, uses and administration, tolerance, prevention and treatment, and dependency issues.

 

Psychomotor Stimulants (8% - 10%)

 

  • History and types: Stimulants are a class of drugs that elevate mood, increase feelings of well-being and increase energy and alertness.

  • Effects, uses and administration, tolerance, prevention and treatment, and dependency issues.

 

Opioids (8% - 11%)

 

  • History and types: Opium, the sap of the seedpod of Papaver Somniferum, was found as early as 3000 BC and later spread from its origins in Turkey to Islam to India to China to Europe and America. Types include codeine, fentanyl, oxycodone, hydrocodone, and morphine.

  • Effects, uses and administration, tolerance, prevention and treatment, and dependency issues.

 

Cannabinoids (8% - 10%)

 

  • History and types: Evidence suggested that the medicinal use of Cannabis goes back to the Chinese emperor Chen Nung, who was the father of Chinese agriculture.

  • Effects, uses and administration, tolerance, prevention and treatment, and dependency issues.

 

Hallucinogens (3% - 5%)

 

  • History and types: Drugs that cause hallucinations-profound distortions in a person’s perceptions of reality. Like many substances from the past, they were used in cultural and religious contexts.

  • Effects, uses and administration, tolerance, prevention and treatment, and dependency issues.

 

Other Drugs of Abuse (4% - 6%)

 

  • Anabolic steroids: A synthetic substance similar to the male sex hormone testosterone.

  • Over-the-counter (OTC) substances: Can be purchased at a pharmacy, grocery or convenience store without a prescription.

  • Herbal substances: more drug users are utilizing and abusing new herbal drugs. These new herbal drugs are falsely propagated as safe and legal.

  • Club drugs: A pharmacologically heterogeneous group of psychoactive drugs that tend to be abused by teens and young adults.

  • Other prescription drugs of interest: Not legally prescribed and/or taking it for reasons or in dosages other than as prescribed.

 

Antipsychotic Drugs (3% - 5%)

 

  • History and types: Introduced in the 1950s, they were used to help patients with psychosis to lead a more normal and fulfilling life by alleviating symptoms of hallucinations, visual and auditory and paranoid thoughts.

  • Effects, uses, and administration.

 

Antidepressants and Mood Stabilizers (3% - 5%)

 

  • History and types: The first antidepressant was discovered by accident in the 1950s. Scientists at Munsterlingen asylum in Switzerland sought treatment for schizophrenia and discovered a drug that could change the balance of the brain’s neurotransmitters.

  • Effects, uses and administration, tolerance, withdrawal, and suicidal behaviors.

     

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