Criminal Justice


Criminal Justice:

DANTES Final Exam Outline 

Each topic will be covered in class. 


Criminal Behavior (14% - 16%)


  • Defining crime: Crime involves conduct, harm to society, and formal sanction. It is an act that violates written criminal law.

  • Crime in the United States: The Hierarchy Rule requires that only the most serious offense in a multiple-offense criminal incident be counted.

  • Theories of crime: Classical theory and Positivist theory amongst others.

  • Types of crime: Includes hate crimes, drug crimes, and gang crimes.

  • Measurement of crime: UCR-Uniform Crime Report, NIBRS-National Incident-Based Reporting, and NCVS-National Crime Victimization Survey System.

  • Juvenile delinquency: The legal status of “juvenile delinquent” is defined as a minor child who has violated the penal code.


Criminal Justice System (24% - 26%)


  • Historical origins and legal foundations: The criminal justice system in the United States was greatly influenced by the English form of justice known as the “Common Law” system.

  • Due process: An individual who is accused of a criminal act, should not be deprived of life, liberty, or property without legal procedures that are fair and reasonable.

  • Criminal justice agencies: All agencies fall under the jurisdiction of the Attorney General, which is at the top.


Police (19% - 21%)


  • History and organization: The idea of a centralized municipal police department was first introduced to the U.S. in the 1830s.

  • Societal role and function: They have responsibility for investigating and apprehending individuals suspected of criminal acts.

  • Issues and trends: Developing issues that are most significantly changing policing in the most fundamental ways.

  • Occupational characteristics: May include police attitudes towards the use of their discretionary powers.


Court System (19% - 21%)


  • History of the court system: The Judiciary Act of 1789 was the primary law that helped set up a judicial system in the U.S.

  • Organization and structure: The Supreme Court is the highest court at the top of the organization.

  • Adult court systems: Civil, Criminal, Bankruptcy, and Appeals.

  • Juvenile court: Cases are referred mainly by law enforcements and on some occasions, parents, victims, schools and probation officers make referrals.

  • Pretrial, trial and post-trial processes: (e.g., bail, plea bargaining, sentencing).

  • Sentencing issues and trends: Objectives of sentencing are retribution, isolation, vengeance, deterrence, and rehabilitation.


Corrections (19% - 21%)


  • History of corrections: Created to remove the undesirable citizenry (criminals, the poor) from the streets or at least to control them.

  • Purpose: Punishment is believed to be a deterrence of others from criminal behavior.

  • Intermediate sanctions: Stricter than traditional probation but not as costly as a prison. (e.g., electronic monitoring).

  • Adult prison systems: U.S. has largest prison population in the world.

  • Juvenile correction alternatives: (e.g., therapy, community service).

  • Capital punishment: The death penalty given by the government of a country.

  • Prison organization: Formed by groups of inmates as a means to protect themselves from other inmates.

  • Inmate characteristics: Based on crime types, violent offenses counted for about 60% of all crimes.

  • Issues and trends: The current rate of incarceration is increasing every year, leaving the United States to deal with new issues and trends.